1. Mandatory Disciplines
Area of Concentration: Family Farming and Sustainable Development
Research Laboratory – Research Line I (2 Credit Units, 30 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: Indissociated with the themes addressed in the Research Line 02 (Social Change, Actors of Development and Organizational Dynamics in the Rural Area), this discipline proposes a plural and constant environment of reflection on the research that approaches the productive practices in the different productive logics in the Amazonian context and comparisons with other regions. In addition to the productive diversity, the social, cultural and economic contexts of these practices and their impact on the biophysical environment and production are focused. It also aims to analyze the domestic group (family, work division, social reproduction strategies), center of decision making on these practices, the management of the family establishment and the use and management of its natural resources. To do so, it is reflected from a theoretical and methodological point of view, in different approaches, focusing on research in production systems and agricultural / research / development systems, seeking the dialogue of the agroecological approach with traditional agronomic research. Objectives of Research Laboratories (Line 1): 1. Establish a systemic research of the relations of production, in the field of the so-called rural development; 2. Discuss the specificities of the research on different situations in the Amazon; 3. Encourage the effectiveness of the use of libraries and newspaper portals; 4. Practice reading, debate and writing in the scientific field. 5. Interaction with other Graduate Programs and research groups with similar themes.
Research Laboratory – Research Line II (2 Credit Units, 30 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: Reflection on research that addresses social situations in agriculture and family extractivism; Introduction to physical and virtual bibliographic research; Training in the use of periodical portals and bibliographic data management; Introduction to academic reading, debate and writing. Objectives of Research Laboratories (Line 2): 1. Locate sociological and / or anthropological research in the field of so-called rural development; 2. To discuss the specificities of research on social situations in agriculture and family extraction in the Amazon; 3. Encourage the effectiveness of the use of libraries and newspaper portals; 4. Practice reading, debate and writing in the scientific field.
Research Methodology (4 Credit Units, 60 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: This discipline aims to offer methodological tools to relate theory and empirical research, demonstrating the instrumental differences of the social sciences and the natural sciences. How to elaborate research projects that allow the production of knowledge and intervention in reality. Distinction between social problem and sociological problem; pre-notions; objectification. Qualitative and quantitative techniques. Emphasis is given to the definition of the research problem, to the construction of the object and to the selection of suitable techniques for its apprehension. The classes consist of exposition and discussion in class (seminars, debates, guided studies). Use of audiovisual resources. Exercises aiming at the elaboration of the problem and construction of the research object.
Agrarian Question, Rural Development and Family Agriculture (4 Credit Units, 60 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The objectives are: to analyze the debate on capitalist development in agriculture focusing on the agrarian origins of the state and the models of rural development from the beginning of the twentieth century; to analyze the emergence of the debate around the notions of peasantry and family agriculture in Brazil, opposing its conceptual and operational status, seeking the constitution of a theoretical-methodological framework; to treat the diversity of familiar forms of production in the rural area, highlighting the different relations built between its actors. The course will be divided into three units: 1. Historical formation of the Brazilian countryside; 2. Social actors in rural areas; 3. Social changes in rural areas. The first unit will deal with agrarian history in the Brazilian context, as well as the classic international and Brazilian debates on the agrarian question. It will analyze the main classical formulations related to the conceptual and methodological approach of peasants and rural development. The second unit will deal with the diversity of familiar forms of production in rural areas and their evolution and reception in the academic and political fields in the last decades. It will analyze the trajectory of the concepts peasantry, small production and family agriculture. It will also deal with its relations with other collective actors in a context of increasing appreciation of identity aspects, but also of fragmentation from the class perspective. It will analyze the notions of rural family farmers, workers in agriculture and business agriculture. The third unit will deal with social changes in rural areas and the different views on rural development, agriculture and the environment, new rurality, urban rural and pluriactivity. Focus will be on rural development models and the controversies surrounding family farming. It will highlight the different relationships built between its actors and natural resources, increasingly in dispute.
2. Elective Disciplines
Collective Action in the Rural Area (4 Credit Units, 60 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The discipline deals with the collective activities of family farmers (farmers, settlers of the agrarian reform, traditional populations, members of social movements), members or not of associations and cooperatives. It analyzes what exists in common among social movements, collective management of natural resources and associativism, such as: the organization of cooperation despite divergent interests, the integration of members around common interests, the importance of leaders and power, the mobilization of active participation, as well as the creation of an identity of the members. It discusses the current theoretical approaches on social movements, relies on the sociology of organizations, highlights the contribution of the Solidarity Economy to rural development and encourages the debate on empirical investigations. Thus, it allows new looks on collective action in the rural space. Considering that public policies in the last decades have stimulated the engagement of rural family producers in different associative forms as a requisite for obtaining services (for example, rural credit for the purchase of equipment for individual and common use, community infrastructures, etc.). This form of social organization means one of the greatest challenges in the daily life of this population. Therefore, knowledge of the problems and possibilities of cooperation is indispensable for working with rural organizations, such as associations, interest groups, social movements or trade unions.
Agroecology (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The aim of this discipline is to offer theoretical and methodological elements about agroecology and its possibilities of contributing, with focus on family agriculture, to rural sustainability in the Amazon. It is divided into five modules: Module 1) Theoretical bases and evolution of agroecology; Module 2) Aspects related to the ecological-technical dimension productive of agroecology; Module 3) Aspects related to the social, economic and cultural dimension of agroecology; Module 4) Aspects related to the political dimension of agroecology; Module 5) Processes of agroecological transition.
Sustainable Rural Territorial Development (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: Territory, territoriality and new conceptions of rural development. Introduction to theories of regional and territorial development. The socio-spatial and territorial approach. Territorial dynamics: theory and practice. Actors and dynamics of networks, conflicts and proximity. Centralized, decentralized and participatory planning. Territorial governance and institutions. The methodologies of territorial development and socio-territorial innovations. Information, observatories and territorial prospects. Territorial development policies and territorialization of public action. Social management of public policies and learning.
Historical and Cultural Contexts of the Peasantry (4 Credit Units, 60 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: Main foundations of the economic and social specificity of peasant societies. The main foundations, from the social, economic and political point of view. Analysis of concrete forms of peasantry's existence in the Amazon, focusing on certain public policies that affect peasant societies.
Systemic Approach Applied to the Study of Family Production (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: Theory of systems as theoretical basis. Concepts and precepts related to systems. Systems theory and systemic approach. Concepts of agroecosystems. Family farming. The systemic approach applied to the study of family production. The notions of practice and technique. Different scales of study of family agricultural production (portion, establishment, locality / agrarian system).
Study of the Practices and the Technical-Productive Indices of Family Agricultural Systems (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The systemic approach applied to the study of the practices of family farmers in the Amazon. The decision-making process and the management of the product, work and economic-financial flows of a family production system. Application and interpretation of indexes for the analysis of the social, economic and ecological sustainability of the system.
Nature, Agriculture and Arts (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The discipline aims to discuss the appropriation of rural themes, particularly those related to peasant production, by the arts, addressing, each semester, an introduction with a generalist approach and the deepening of the relation of agriculture to one of the arts, whether from an author, or from the chosen themes that allow this form of association. The development of this activity will begin the deep treatment of the relationship between nature, agriculture and literature.
Rural and Rural Organizations in Brazil (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: To offer a theoretical instrument to the understanding of the main elements of the organizations of the Brazilian rural producers in general and of the Amazon, especially, from the knowledge of texts and exercises on the subject.
Processes of Work, Family and Sociability in Rural Space (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The objective of this discipline is to provide theoretical and methodological references to analyze classical and contemporary issues related to work and workers in rural areas in the global and local contexts regarding: i) Conceptions of work; ii) the social and sexual division of labor; iii) evidence of the work in its different formats (family, salaried, associative, among others) and meanings; and transversality of work in terms of gender, generation and ethnicity.
Local Knowledge and Dialogue between Knowledge for Development (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The discipline explores the contribution of anthropology and ethnobiology to the understanding of thought systems and the production and reproduction of local knowledge as products of interaction between and among the different segments of a society. The discipline will support the discussion of notions, concepts, discourses, practices and techniques associated with local knowledge, including the study of the concept of tradition, heritage and ethnicity in anthropology. The following topics will be examined: a) Local technical knowledge (indigenous technical knowledge); b) Ethnosciences and their applications for development; c) The question of the formalization of local knowledge: traps and opportunities; d) Knowledge of family farmers: the so-called colonists and traditional peoples and communities of the Amazon, about ecosystems and their natural resources; d) networks of exchanges of knowledge and resources between farmers; e) Technical changes from the networks of exchanges: what and why? f) Dialogue between farmers and researchers / extension agents; g) Dissemination of knowledge by local populations: limitations and challenges; h) Mobilization of local knowledge for rural development actions; i) Local knowledge and participation. The notion of knowledge and information system.
Agroforestry Systems (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The objective of this course is to offer theoretical, methodological and practical elements for the analysis of experiences and proposition of agroecological strategies adapted to the diversity and complexity of Amazonian contexts, with emphasis on agroforestry systems (SAFS), through two modules: Module 1) Challenges and perspectives for the identification, planning and adoption of agroecological strategies in Amazon agroecosystems; and Module 2) Identification, systematization and planning of agroecological-based systems for the Amazonian reality, with emphasis on agroforestry systems- SAFs.
Land Use, Productive Forces and Sustainability in the Amazon (3 Credit Units, 45 Credit Hours)
Syllabus: The relationships between land use and family production are discussed and discusses the main theories that support the assessment of land use patterns through the implications of man and nature relationships especially in agriculture, livestock and extractive Amazon. It presents ways of evaluating these activities with a view to sustainable rural development involving the principles of ecology, economic efficiency and social equity considering the differences between family production and employer production. Contents and Program of the Discipline: Unit I) Theoretical reference on land use. Expansion of the agricultural frontier (Capitalist penetration, Intersectoral Articulation). Life cycle model. Territorialization. Livelihood and sustainability. Unit II) Ecosystems, agrarian structure and production. Ecosystems. Composition and physiography (Terra firme, várzeas). Climate, vegetation and soils. Potential use of ecosystems. Agrarian structure and productive forces. Territorial division and land use (meso, micro regions). Land use and productive forces (large, medium, small farmers establishments, rural enterprises, family production). Unit III) Land use and sustainability. Land use and ecological security (deforestation, organic matter and carbon emissions). Relationship between ecological security, economic efficiency and social equity. Indicators of sustainability.